Arthur C. Tsai

Institute of Statistical Science
Academia Sinica
Taipei 11529, Taiwan
Tel (886)2-27875743; Fax (886)2-27831523


Associate Research Fellow, Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica (2016–present)


1999 Ph.D. National Taiwan University, Electrical Engineering.
 Thesis: Robust MIMO Fuzzy/Neuro-Fuzzy Control by Self-Tuning of Con- sequent Membership Functions.
1993 M.S. National Taiwan University, Electrical Engineering.
1992 B.S. National Tsing Hua University, Power Mechanical Engineering.


1999–2004 Postdoctoral Fellow
Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica.


EEG source analysis; independent component analysis; functional MRI data analysis; neuro-fuzzy systems; trait anxiety study; human learning.



  1. Y Yu, Arthur C. Tsai, C Ou, C Cheng, F Chang, B Shyu, and A Huang. Optogenetic stimulation in the medial prefrontal cortex modulates stim- ulus valence from rewarding and aversive to neutral states. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 2023.
  2. Su-Ling Yeh, Shuo-Heng Li, Li Jingling, Joshua OS Goh, Yi-Ping Chao, and Arthur C. Tsai. Age-related differences in the neural processing of idioms: A positive perspective. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, page 492, 2022.
  3. Shen-Da Chang, Po-Chih Kuo, Karl Zilles, Tim Q Duong, Simon B Eickhoff, Andrew CW Huang, Arthur C. Tsai, Philip E Cheng, and Michelle Liou. Brain reactions to opening and closing the eyes: Salivary cortisol and functional connectivity. Brain Topography, pages 1–23, 2022.
  4. Ying Hao Yu, Yeou San Lim, Chen Yin Ou, Kai Chieh Chang, Arthur C. Tsai, Fang Chih Chang, and Andrew Chih Wei Huang. The medial pre- frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, basolateral amygdala, and hippocampus regulate the amelioration of environmental enrichment and cue in fear behavior in the animal model of PTSD. Behavioural Neurology, 2022, 2022.
  5. Arthur C. Tsai, A.C.W. Huang, Y.H. Yu, C.-S. Kuo, C.-C. Hsu, Y.S. Lim, and B.C. Shyu*. A wireless magnetic resonance device for optogenetic applications in an animal model. Sensors, 20:5869, 2020.
  6. Siddharth Nayak, Arthur C. Tsai, Lydia Chen, Jiun Wei Liou, and Michelle Liou*. Short-term resting-state heart rate variability. Andr ́e Alves Pereira (Ed), A book chapter in A Closer Look at Heart Rate, New York: Nova Science, pages 1–40, 2020.
  7. Siddharth Nayak, ChiiShyang Kuo, and Arthur C. Tsai*. Mid-frontal theta modulates response inhibition and decision making processes in emotional contexts. Brain Sciences, 9(10):271, 2019.
  8. Yi-Li* Tseng, Hong-Hsiang Liu, Michelle Liou, Arthur C. Tsai, Vincent SC Chien, Shuoh-Tyng Shyu, and Zhi-Shun Yang. Lingering sound: Event-related phase-amplitude coupling and phase-locking in fronto-temporo-parietal functional networks during memory retrieval of music melodies. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 13, 2019.
  9. Arthur C. Tsai*, Michelle Liou*, Maria Simak, and Philip E. Cheng. On hyperbolic transformations to normality. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 115:250–266, 2017.
  10. Y. H. Li, C. Y. Tseng, Arthur C. Tsai, A. C. W. Huang, and W. L. Lin. Different brain wave patterns and cortical control abilities in relation to different creative potentials. Creativity Research Journal, 28(1):89–98, 2016.
  11. Vincent S. C. Chien, Arthur C. Tsai, Han Hsuan Yang, Yi-Li Tseng, Alexander N. Savostyanov, and Michelle Liou*. Conscious and non-conscious representations of emotional faces in Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 113:e53962, 2016.
  12. Arthur C. Tsai*, T.-P. Jung, V. S. C. Chien, A. N. Savostyanov, and S. Makeig. Cortical surface alignment in multi-subject spatiotemporal independent EEG source imaging. NeuroImage, 87:297–310, 2014.
  13. D. R. Golomolzina, M. A. Gorodnichev, E. A. Levin, A. N. Savostyanov, E. P. Yablokova, Arthur C. Tsai, M. S. Zaleshin, A. V. Budakova, A. E. Saprygin, My. A. Remnev, and N. V. Smirnov. Advanced electroencephalogram processing: Automatic clustering of EEG components. International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications, 5(2):49–69, 2014.
  14. Arthur C. Tsai*, A. N. Savostyanov*, A. Wu, J. P. Evans, V. S. C. Chien, H. H. Yang, D.-Y. Yang, and M. Liou. Recognizing syntactic errors in Chinese and English sentences: EEG oscillatory activity in Asperger’s syndrome. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7:889–905, 2013.
  15. A. N. Savostyanov*, Arthur C. Tsai, A. Zhigalov, E. A. Levin, J. D. Lee, and M. Liou. Trait anxiety: Trait anxiety and neurophysiology of executive control in the stop-signal paradigm. In Anna S. Morales (Ed), Trait Anxiety, New York: Nova Science, pages 191–222, 2012.
  16. H. H. Yang, A. N. Savostyanov*, Arthur C. Tsai, and M. Liou. Face recognition in Asperger syndrome: A study on EEG spectral power changes. Neuroscience Letters, 492(2):84–88, 2011.
  17. W. Y.* Hsu, C. Y. Lin, W. F. Kuo, M. Liou, Y.-N. Sun, Arthur C. Tsai, H. J. Hsu, P. H. Chen, and I. R. Chen. (2011). Unsupervised fuzzy c-means clustering for motor imagery EEG recognition. International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 7(8):4965–4976, 2011.
  18. A. N. Savostyanov*, Arthur C. Tsai, M. Liou, E. A. Levin, J. D. Lee, A. V. Yurganov, and G. G. Knyazev. EEG-correlates of trait anxiety in the stop-signal paradigm. Neuroscience Letters, 449(2):112–116, 2009.
  19. J. D. Lee, H. R. Su, P. E. Cheng*, M. Liou, J. A. D. Aston, Arthur C. Tsai, and C. Y. Chen. MR image segmentation using a power transformation approach. IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 28(6):894–905, 2009.
  20. P. E. Cheng*, M. Liou, J. A. D. Aston, and Arthur C. Tsai. Information identities and testing hypotheses: Power analysis for contingency tables. Statistica Sinica, 18(2):535–558, 2008.
  21. M. Liou*, H. R. Su, & Arthur C Tsai (2008). Decision thresholds in functional MR image analysis. A paper presented in an invited session on Statistical Analysis of Medical Images. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on BioMedical Engineering and Informatics, pp. 742-747, Hainan, China.
  22. Arthur C. Tsai*, M. Liou, T. P. Jung, J. A. Onton, P. E. Cheng, C. C. Huang, J. R. Duann, and S. Makeig. Mapping single-trial EEG records on the cortical surface through a spatiotemporal modality. NeuroImage, 32(1):195–207, 2006.
  23. M. Liou, H. R. Su, J. D. Lee, J. A. D. Aston*, Arthur C. Tsai, and P. E. Cheng. A method for generating reproducible evidence in fMRI studies. Neuroimage, 29(2):383–395, 2006.
  24. Arthur C. Tsai*, M. Liou, and P. E. Cheng. Bayesian approaches to mapping ERP features on the cortical surface. Journal of the Chinese Statistical Association, 42(1):99–114, 2004.
  25. M. Liou*, H. R. Su, J. D. Lee, P. E. Cheng, C. C. Huang, and Arthur C. Tsai. Bridging functional MR images and scientific inference: Reproducibility maps. J. Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(7):935–945, 2003.
  26. Arthur C. Tsai*, C. H. Wang, and W. S. Lin. Robust fuzzy model-following control of robot manipulators. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 8(4):462–469, 2000.
  27. W. S. Lin*, Arthur C. Tsai, and J. S. Liu. Robust neuro-fuzzy control of multivariable systems by tuning consequent membership functions. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 124(2):181–195, 2001.
  28. W. S. Lin* and Arthur C. Tsai. Self-organizing fuzzy control of multi-variable systems using learning vector quantization network. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 124(2):197–212, 2001.
  29. W. S. Lin and Arthur C. Tsai*. Neuro-fuzzy model following control of MIMO nonlinear systems. IEE Proceedings-Control theory and Applications, 146(2):157–164, 1999.

(ps. * refer to the corresponding author)

Ph. D. dissertation

A. C. Tsai. Robust MIMO fuzzy/neuro-fuzzy control by self-tuning of consequent membership functions. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Jun 1999.


Arthur C. Tsai, A.C.W. Huang and B.C, Shyu WIRELESS MAGNETIC RESONANCE DEVICE FOR OPTOGENETIC APPLICATIONS IN ANIMAL MODEL US 2020/0108271 A1, CN111001087A, TW202014216A. A novel wireless device is proposed which follows the principle of a mag- netic resonance technique to overcome the deficits of the conventional method with magnetic induction or radio-frequency power source.


Hyperbolic Power Transformation
The Matlab scripts demonstrate the efficacy of hyperbolic power transformation in the four essential types of transformations: concave, convex, concave-to-convex, and convex-to-concave functions. The closed-form solutions of both power and scale parameters by equi-percentile point estimation and maximum likelihood estimation are also demonstrate by the demo program.

Refereed Conference papers (since 2016)

  1. Arthur C. Tsai*, Siddharth Nayak, Chih-Chan Hsu, Chii-Shyang Kuo, Shuo-Heng Li, Joshua Oon Soo Goh, Yi-Ping Chao, Li Jingling, and Su- Ling Yeh. Exploring the automatic regulation of affect in young and older adults across response inhibition tasks. 25nd Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Rome, Italy, Jun. 9-13, 2019.
  2. Yi-Wen Kao, Shuo-Heng Li, Joshua Oon Soo Goh, Arthur C Tsai, Li Jingling, and Su-Ling Yeh. Age-related differences in the neural processing of momentum. Perception, 2019.
  3. Arthur C. Tsai*, Siddharth Nayak, Chii-Shyang Kuo, Chih-Chan Hsu, and Michelle Liou. Exploring the cognitive-emotional interactions in normal aging across response inhibition tasks. The 41st Annual Meeting of the Japan Neuroscience Society, Kobe, Japan, July 26-29, 2018.
  4. Arthur C. Tsai*. Sparse Bayesian approach for physiologically plausible compact and smooth spatiotemporal independent EEG source imaging. The 11th International Conference on Cognitive Science, Taipei, Taiwan, Sep. 1-3, 2017.
  5. Arthur C. Tsai*, Chii-Shyang Kuo, Vincent S. C. Chien, Michelle Liou, and Philip E. Cheng. Frontal oscillatory activity and phase–amplitude coupling during Chan meditation. The 19th International Conference on Psychology and Behavioral Sciences conference, Tokyo, Japan, May 28-30, 2017 (The Best Presentation Award).
  6. Arthur C. Tsai*, Chii-Shyang Kuo, Michelle Liou, Kayako Matsuo, Philip Cheng, and Scott Makeig. Hyperbolic power density driven independent component approach for fMRI data. 22nd Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Geneva, Switzerland, Jun. 26-30, 2016. 


  • April 2019 Presented invited talk “Adult age differences in inhibitory control as revealed by fMRI and drift diffusion model” in the departmental Seminar series at Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
  • Aug. 2018 Presented invited talk “Using drift diffusion model to understand age related differences in inhibitory control” in the The 11th Inter- national Conference on Bioinformatics of Genome Regulation and Struc- ture/Systems Biology, Aug 20-25, 2018, Novosibirsk Academgorodok, Russia.
  • Sep. 2016 Presented invited talk “Functional Neuroimaging” in the TIGP- Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Orientation. 8A05, Interdisciplinary building for science and technology. Sep. 8, 2016, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
  • Nov. 2016 Presented invited talk “EEG source imaging” in the Young Scholars’ Meeting with JARA-Senior Professor of Brain Research Prof. Dr. Karl Zilles. Nov. 7, 2016, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
  • Oct. 2015 Presented invited talk “ Decreased frontal EEG phase-amplitude coupling during Buddhist meditation ” International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Computational Technologies, Oct 28-30, 2015, Novosibirsk, Russia.
  • Dec. 2014 Presented invited talk “EEG phase-amplitude coupling correlates of meditation-related trait anxiety reduction” International Statistical Symposium, CSA-KSS-JSS Special Invited Sessions, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
  • Nov. 2014 Presented invited talk “EEG cross-frequency coupling and meditation-related trait anxiety relief ” at the 53rd Annual Meeting of Taiwanese Psychological Association, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Jun. 2014 Presented invited talk “Hyperbolic Power Transformation for Blind Signal Separation” at Institute of Statistics, National University of Kaohsiung University, Taiwan.
  • May 2014 Presented invited talk “Multi-Subjects Spatiotemporally Cortex/Latency-Latency Based Aligned EEG Independent Component Analysis ” in the BIT’s 5th Annual World Congress of NeuroTalk 2014, Nanjing, China.
  • Oct. 2013 Presented invited talk “Source Density Driven Fast Independent Component Analysis” at Institute of Statistics, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan.
  • Apr. 2013 Presented invited tutorial “Multi-subject spatiotemporal independent EEG/MEG source imaging” in 2013 Methodological school “Data Processing in EEG/MEG”, Moscow, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia.
  • Jan. 2013 Presented invited talk “Multi-subject EEG/MEG source imaging analysis” in 2013 MEG Educational Training and Symposium, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
  • Jul.–Dec. 2012 Research visit for developing “Spatiotemporal Source Density Driven Adaptive Independent Component Analysis Approach for EEG/MEG Source Localization” at Institute for Neural Computation, University of California San Diego, USA.
  • Apr. 2012 Presented invited talk “Multi-Subjects Spatiotemporally Cortex/Latency- Based Aligned EEG Independent Component Analysis ” at Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan.
  • Dec. 2011 Presented invited talk “Ranking and validating the spatiotemporal independent components by fast fixed-point algorithm and reproducibility ” at Institute of Biomedical Informatics, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan.
  • Oct. 2011 Presented invited talk “Multi-realizations EEG spatiotemporal independent component analysis by reproducibility ” at Department of Statistics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
  • Dec. 2010 Research visit for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology (IHNA), Russian Academy of Sciences for discussing the project of “Cortical Networks Underlying Mismatch Negativity with different Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism.” at the State University of Moscow, Russia.
  • Nov. 2010 Presented invited talk “On single-trial ERSP reproducibility across multiple subjects/trials by semantic Texton forests ” at the Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience, University of California San Diego, USA
  • Jul. 2010 Presented invited talk “Group spatiotemporal independent component analysis by reproducibility ” in the International Conference on Statistical Analysis of Complex Data, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.



  • Information Sciences, Statistica Sinica(2), Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Computational, Technologies, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, Sensors


  • Project and Funding: For College Student (Ministry of Science and Tech- nology, Taiwan), Academia Sinica TIGP Intern review.
  • Ph.D/Master’s Thesis Oral Defense Committee Members: National Chiao Tung University(3), Fo Guang University(5), Taipei City University of Science & Technology(3), National Chung Cheng University(4), National Cheng Kung University(1), National Sun Yat-Sen University(2).